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Native Americans in Larimer County, Colorado
12,000 y.a. - 1878


Paleoindian 12-11 BP Clovis (Dent)
11-10 Folsom (Lindenmeier)
10-9 Plano (Gordon Creek Burial)
Archaic 7.5-1.8 BP Plains Archaic (Trail Ridge Game Trail)
(150 AD) Mountain Tradition
Early/Mid Ceramic 1300 AD Numic speakers move from southern Great Basin into Utah, Wyoming and Colorado
1450 Plains Ceramic abandon Colorado
Late 'long ago' Apache (Athapaskan) in Northwest Territory of Canada
Ceramic   Cheyenne (Algonquin) near Hudson Bay - gathering
    Arapaho (Algonquin) in western Minnesota - farming?
    Kiowa in central Montana
    Utes (Numic) in western Colorado
    Shoshone (Numic) in Wyoming
  1525 Apache in eastern Colorado - hunting
  1540 Coronado's group entered Colorado - European trade begins
  1650 Arapaho move east and south - hunting

Cheyenne begin westward migration - farming

  1600s Ute slaves of Spanish learn to ride
  1680 Pueblo Revolt - Utes get horses
  late 1600s Comanche move from Wyoming to eastern Colorado - hunting
  1700 Comanche push Apache south with horses

Arapaho cross the Missouri River - hunting

Cheyenne in eastern North Dakota - farming

Kiowa meet Crow - pick up Sun Dance

  1720 Spanish gold seekers reach the South Platte
  1725 Apache in southern Colorado / New Mexico
  1750 Kiowa settle in Black Hills, South Dakota
  1780 Cheyenne in Black Hills - hunters & traders, push out Kiowa
  1804 - 1806 Lewis & Clark expedition

Arapaho on the Platte River - hunters

Kiowa on North Platte, push Comanche south

Comanche on Arkansas River

Ute in Estes Park

  1811 Cheyenne and Arapaho link up in Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, push Kiowa south
  1830 Comanche and Kiowa south of Arkansas River
  1834 Bent's Fort on Arkansas; split Cheyenne & Arapaho tribes
  1835 Fort St. Vrain on South Platte
  1840's Emigrants on Oregon trail, 49er's to gold fields

Measles, whooping cough, cholera epidemics

  1851 Treaty of Laramie - Cheyenne and Arapaho get land between North Platte and Arkansas
  1858 LaPorte established (Colona)
  1861 Civil War begins

Treaty of Fort Wise - creates Sand Creek Reservation for Cheyenne and Arapaho

  1864 Sand Creek Massacre - 137 Cheyenne & Arapaho killed

Camp Collins established

Northern Cheyenne reservation in Montana established

  1867 Camp Collins closed - Arapaho starving

Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho reservation established in Oklahoma

  1878 Arapaho allowed on Wind River Shoshone reservation in Wyoming

All Native Americans required to be on reservation


[Paleo-Indian Occupancy 12,000 - 7,500 BP]

[Archaic Occupancy 7,500 - 1,800 BP or 150 AD]

[Native American Occupancy Ceramic, 150 AD - 1850]



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